Syrian Arab Republic or Syria is located in Western Asia that borders Mediterranean Sea and Lebanon. The capital of this country is Damascus that is considered to be one of the oldest inhabited cities in our world. The country is filled with high mountains, deserts and fertile plains. There are many religious and diverse ethnic groups in this place which includes the Arab group of people.

After World War 1 the modern Syria was established according to the French mandate. This represented the largest state of Arab that emerges from formerly Ottoman ruled by Arab Levant. In April 1946, this country gained its independence as parliamentary republic. Syria had undergone Emergency Law in the year 1963 until 2011. This country engaged a shortened union in Egypt that was terminated through a military coup. Since March 11, Syria became embroiled of the uprising regime against Ba’athist and Assad as part of an Arab Spring. This contributed to Syrian Civil War that leads of becoming one of the least peaceful countries in the world.

Government and Politics

Before, Syria is considered as unitary republic. But because of adopting constitution in the year 2012, this country was transformed effectively to a republic known as semi-presidential. It happens because of the constitutional rights of the constituents of electing someone that do not partake in National Progressive Front. The head of the state is called President while Prime Minister is known to be the Head of Government. The people’s council is considered as the legislature of the group of people responsible for approving, passing and debating of policy. The prime minister is obliged for tendering resignation to be the President if the simple majority made vote of no confidence.

The executive branch is made up of prime minister, president, vice presidents (2), and the cabinet member known as the Council of Ministers. To be a Muslim is the primary requirement of the constitution if you want to be the president. The president is given the right to appoint ministers, to declare amnesty and war, release laws, to appoint military personnel and appoint civil servant; these right are base from their constitution. The president in Syria is elected by the Syrian citizens through direct election. Legislative branch of this country is unicameral Council of the People. Syria held its first election on May 7, 2012 in wherein parties from the outside of the ruling coalition can take part.

Human Rights

Human rights in Syria have been a significant concern of the independent organizations. Human Rights Watch referred this country to be one of the Worst countries in the world. Disappearances, arbitrary detention and torture are widespread in this country. The authorities are said to be arresting democracy, detaining bloggers, censoring websites, ordering travel bans. Although the constitution of Syria secures equality, there are critics who say that there are discrimination against women. This country grants honour killing.

Military                                               

Elected president in Syria is considered to be the chief of Syrian armed forces. As the male reaches the age of 18 they are required to serve the military thus, over the time, their obligation in the military decreases. When the Soviet Union broke up, there is a slow improvement in terms of trainings, acquiring military modern equipment and material. Syria gained significant assistance in terms of finances to Persian Gulf Arab states, this result in participating war in Persian Gulf having the portion of sizable funds earmarked for spending the military.

Foreign Relations                                                                                                              

The primary goal of the foreign relation of the president in this country includes the ensuring of national security for the increase of influence Among the Arab neighbours. As much as history is concern, Syria experienced virulent tension with its neighbour like Lebanon, Turkey, Israel and Iraq. Syria happily experienced great improvement in relations concerning with the other states within its region as 21st century arise. Syria became isolated within its neighbouring countries because of the on-going war in the year 2011. This is associated with the abuse of human rights and widespread killing. Syria is part of European Union with its goal of bringing EU and its neighboring countries closer.

Economy

World Bank classified Syria with lower income in the middle country. Syria is dependent in the agriculture and oil industry. The oil producing company provide 40% in terms of export earnings. On the other hand, the sector in agriculture contributes 20% of employment and 20% GDP. Syria became already the importer of net oil. By the time the civil war began, the economy starts to go down.

The country’s economy is greatly controlled by its government. This paves way to the increase of subsidies, protection of foreign currency, tightening of trade controls and assuage of protesters. There are factors for the slow economic increase, these are the following

  • rapid growth of population
  • expansion of industries
  • foreign trades barriers
  • decreasing production of oil
  • high rate of unemployment
  • increase of budget deficits

The main exports of Syria are clothing, fruits, crude oil, grains, raw cotton and refined products. The earnings they get from export of oil at the same the remittances of Syrian workers became the government’s most vital source in terms of foreign exchange.

Ethnic groups

The people of Syria are mostly indigenous Levantine. They are closely related to their close neighboring countries. Kurds is the second biggest ethnic group found in Syria. There are also ethnic groups that can be found in this country, they are the Armenian and Armenian Genocide, Circassians, Greeks, Turkmen and Jews. The Syrian largest Diasporas outside Arab world is Brazil. this is the first country in America that offers humanitarian visas for the refuges of Syria.

Languages

Arabic is considered to be the official language of Syria.

Culture

Syria is a country with traditionally society having the long historical culture. They give importance to their religion, education, family, respect and self-discipline. Syrian’s taste in traditional arts is expressed through dancing like al-Samah, sword dance, Dabkeh in different variations. There are also occasion that demonstrates customs by the folk, which is the children’s birth and marriage ceremonies.